Διεθνείς τάσεις σχετικές με τα Ανοικτά Μαθήματα (OCW) και Εκπαιδευτικούς Πόρους (OER)

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Η σύνοψη και τα συμπεράσματα από το συνέδριο The Open and Flexible University, Παρίσι 23-25 Οκτ 2013 συμπυκνώνει τις διεθνείς τάσεις σχετικά με τα Ανοικτά Μαθήματα και Εκπαιδευτικούς Πόρους.


Κεντρικό θέμα συζήτησης ήταν το μέλλον των πανεπιστημίων και το πώς αυτά μετασχηματίζονται με τη εισαγωγή και χρήσης της τεχνολογίας. Αφορμή της διεθνούς συζήτησης αποτέλεσε η έκρηξη των MOOC. Διαπιστώθηκε ότι τα πανεπιστήμια, ανοικτά ή κλασσικά, οφείλουν να εκμεταλλευτούν τη νέα τεχνολογία προκειμένου να παρέχουν εξ αποστάσεως διαδικτυακή εκπαίδευση (Online Distance Learning). H τεχνολογία και τα ψηφιακά μέσα (συμπεριλαμβανομένων διαδικτυακών υπηρεσιών και πλατφορμών) αποτελεί εργαλείο βελτίωσης του περιβάλλοντος μάθησης (learning environment) είτε αυτό είναι φυσικό είτε ιδεατό είτε συνδυασμός. Το πώς θα χρησιμοποιηθεί η τεχνολογία είναι ένα παιδαγωγικό και διδακτικό ζήτημα. Ένα παράδειγμα είναι η αναστραμμένη διδασκαλία, όπου οι φοιτητές προετοιμάζονται online για το μάθημα και στο αμφιθέατρο, αίθουσες διδασκαλίας ή εργαστήριο εμβαθύνουν ή λύνουν απορίες. Ένα άλλο παράδειγμα είναι η αξιοποίηση learning spaces, όπου συγκεντρώνονται οι φοιτητές προκειμένου να συνεργαστούν και να μάθουν. Τα σημεία στα οποία πρέπει να δοθεί προσοχή κατά την παροχή της μάθησης είναι τα ακόλουθα:

  • Στην εξασφάλιση της ποιότητας της μάθησης είτε είναι online είτε όχι.
  • Στην εξασφάλιση του αδιάβλητου των εξετάσεων.
  • Στη διάδραση της ομάδας διδακτικής υποστήριξης με τους φοιτητές με ηλεκτρονικό και φυσικό τρόπο.
  • Στη συνεργασία των φοιτητών μεταξύ τους φυσικά ή ηλεκτρονικά.
  • Η αναγνώριση (recognition) του αποτελέσματος.

Το συμπέρασμα είναι ότι ακόμη και εάν εξαφανιστούν τα mooc, έχουν ήδη αφήσει τη σφραγίδα τους καθώς έχουν κάνει εμφανή την ανάγκη μετασχηματισμού των πανεπιστημίων. Τα πανεπιστήμια οφείλουν να αναζητήσουν τα παιδαγωγικά και οικονομικά μοντέλα στα οποία θα βασιστούν στο άμεσο μέλλον αξιοποιώντας τη τεχνολογία. Τα πανεπιστήμια οφείλουν να γίνουν πιο ανοικτά και ευέλικτα με την έννοια ότι θα παρέχουν ανοικτά μαθήματα τα οποία θα μπορεί να παρακολουθήσει οποιοσδήποτε και αφού περάσει επιτυχώς τις εξετάσεις θα μπορεί να λάβει την αναγνώριση των μονάδων. Επίσης, θα αναγνωρίζει μονάδες άλλων πανεπιστημίων.

Message of Sorbonne, Paris As presented at the Paris conference on October 25th 2013 (to be formalised and amended on the basis of the panel discussion) There must now be very few students in Europe whose experience in their universities is not at in part online. Today, most higher education institutions and the majority of their programmes, especially at undergraduate level, increasingly embrace a form of blended teaching and learning, integrating face to face and online learning. The particular blend varies according to the particular mission, cultural and educational context of institutions, the motivation and educational skills of teaching staff, the technological resources available and so on. Increasingly, multi-campus solutions, some times international in nature, provide the framework for collaborative courses covering virtual seminars, learning communities, live videoconferencing , and asynchronous web applications. Transnational education is growing rapidly. Online teaching and learning methods and resources are at the core of these developments to enable students to join and study without the need for physical presence at the home university location. On the other hand, there are probably very few students whose learning experience has been transformed and whose success has been stimulated by the potential of online technologies. A learning management system or a virtual learning environment is no guarantee of effective online pedagogy. Yet ultimately, online technologies have the potential to transform the concept of teaching and learning itself. Effectively deployed, new technologies stimulate accessibility, interactivity, flexibility, personalisation and the ubiquity of teaching and learning, opening up education for students at home or at work, and for international students. Teaching staff and students jointly become designers and beneficiaries of the learning process. What goes through the network from teacher to student is probably less important that what comes back from student to teacher, and what we do with that rich source of pedagogic data through learning analytics. The solutions that hold out most potential are designing the learning process around learning activities, exploiting what students already know and their search and discovery skills, using the interaction between students and staff in learning communities as a way to construct knowledge jointly. The innovation is bound to continue, if not accelerate. In this rapidly evolving climate, we are beginning to see open education making its appearance in the mainstream. Open educational resources (OERs) were a first step to enable the re-use and remixing of study material and learning resources for students. MOOCs now dominate the agenda. From their north American origins they are now rapidly expanding in Europe as well.

But we should beware of undue optimism, and even more aware of the dangers of complacency. For teaching staff in many European universities, e-learning is still a strange and brave new world and they will need support to come to terms with it. Most institutions have yet to develop a clear policy framework for the development and the implementation of new modes of learning. Approaches remain partial and fragmented. So there is now an urgent need in a great many institutions for an institutional strategy and a coherent framework for the optimal exploitation of online technologies and for the development of innovative teaching and learning formats, that will enhance the quality of teaching and learning. Nonetheless, there are pioneer institutions developing leading edge learning solutions and advanced techniques for designing and monitoring learning, which have been captured by the Innovating Pedagogy reports from the Institute of Educational Technology of the British Open University and by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies in Sevilla. Key trends that have been identified include MOOCs, open badges to accredit learning, learning analytics, seamless learning, crowd learning, digital scholarship, geo-learning, gamification, maker culture and citizen inquiry. As online pedagogy expands within the mainstream, an issue that distance teaching institutions have faced for many years will be become better known. Quality assurance and accreditation of online teaching and learning is not yet integrated in quality assurance systems either at the institutional level or in the work of national quality assurance and accreditation agencies. The problem of quality criteria designed for face to face teaching which are applied inappropriately to online learning should now be regarded as urgent. Over the past 8 years, EADTU has gained experience and expertise in quality benchmarking for e-learning that is recognised worldwide through the E-xcellence family of projects in their engagement. This will be further strengthened in a joint project with ENQA and EFQUEL next year, aiming at the integration of standards for online teaching and learning. Standards address the totality of the online learning environment and support services, including the strategic management, curriculum design, course design, course delivery, staff support and student support. In this project, we will further capitalize on this experience. Gradually, we need to move away from separate standards and procedures for the evaluation of online teaching and learning. E-learning is becoming part of the mainstream, so mainstream quality systems need to embrace it. But an even greater challenge we all face is the prospect of new systems academic accreditation over which higher education has less control. There is intense interest in new certification options and badging systems linked to MOOCs. Perhaps the most critical issue will be how employers react to these developments, and the prospect that this could lead to challenges from the private providers to the role of universities in awarding credits, certificates and degrees. Higher education will need new strategies for co-existence in this increasingly complex market place for certification. So at the end of this fascinating conference, EADTU confirms the position that underpins its new strategy, and declares its wish to play a wider and increasingly active role in shaping the future of European higher education. Higher education that encompasses open and flexible provision is essential to meet the social, economic and cultural needs of the citizens and nations of Europe. Today, there is an intolerable inequality between different European nations in access to open and flexible higher education. We therefore call on national governments to develop and implement policies to ensure that open and flexible provision for citizens aged 25 becomes a vital and natural part of their higher education systems, so that the talents of all citizens develop throughout their lifetimes, so that employability is secured through skilling and reskilling, and citizens have the opportunity to enhance their knowledge and understanding, anytime and anywhere they need. The European Association of Distance Teaching Universities and its members adhere to high quality standards in online and distance teaching and learning. Excellence in teaching and learning is fundamental to our mission, and is assured through rigorous structures and processes combined with peer review throughout the life cycle of courses. With the support of the European Commission, EADTU has already developed quality benchmarks for online and distance learning at the level of the institutional management, curriculum and course development, course delivery, tutoring and staff support. It is continuing to share this work with universities and quality and accreditation agencies in order to jointly establish a European framework for quality assurance and accreditation for online and distance education. The members of the European Association of Distance Teaching Universities are keen to work with the wider sector, using the expertise they have acquired in student-centred teaching and learning through online and other means, to ensure that teaching and learning in all European universities will reach the highest quality standards. To this end, EADTU members are willing to pool their expertise with others in a European-wide action plan to enhance the quality and impact of online and blended teaching and learning in all member states. By creating this pool of experience and expertise, we will drive forward excellence in teaching and learning in European higher education and enhance the competitive position of European universities in the rest of the world. EADTU at the European level and its members in their respective countries already serve a network for experimentation, collaboration and innovation in online teaching and learning, and the development of business models for open and flexible education reaching out to non-mainstream students. We seek to extend that network in partnership with the wider higher education sector. EADTU members strongly welcome the Opening up Education initiative as a positive contribution to the European Commission’s Modernisation Agenda in Higher Education. EADTU is the key partner representing the online and distance higher education sector with the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers in support of this initiative. We share the objective to create a European Learning Space of universities, accessible for all in all countries and from anywhere in Europe, and responding to the educational needs of the population, whether that be for formal qualifications or for non-formal and informal learning.

Κατάλογος με MOOCs